This work demonstrated a single-transistor artificial excitatory-inhibitory (E-I) neuron by integrating a threshold switch connected with a gated 2D semiconductor MoS2 channel. Without auxiliary reset circuits, the device exhibits bio-realistic dynamics to emulate essential neuronal functions such as leaky integration, threshold-driven fire, inhibition, firing threshold tuning, and self-recovery. The biomimetic neuron operates with independently regulated excitatory and inhibitory inputs. These unique designs allow the spatiotemporal integration of excitatory and inhibitory signals to be realized in a single device without any circuits.
More importantly, the artificial E-I neuron can be adopted to generate neuronal oscillations and support information integration and synchronization. Neuronal oscillations originated from the synergistic effect of E-I signals, and constructs high-dimensional population codes to enable precise shuffling/integration of bottom-up and top-down signals. The E-I neuron demonstrates advanced neuronal functions and provides a promising pathway to building ultra-scalable, low-cost, basic components for large-scale integrated neuromorphic systems with superior brain-inspired functions.